First use of non-biomass to smelt metal

So, my fellow humans, will we experience the Sixth Mass Extinction, which might take us with it, or will humanity experience its Fifth Epochal Event? The choice has always been ours, and we are quickly reaching the point where it will likely be one or the other, with little feasible middle ground. Fuller stated that if humanity had not achieved the Fifth Epochal Event by the 1980s, the probability of humanity's surviving its self-made catastrophe would be less than 50%. Here we are, three decades later, and Fuller may still be right, but time is very short. , and more than 40 years of this pursuit as of 2015 has been teaching it to me. But the window of opportunity to avert a global calamity is closing, and if humanity does not begin to embrace the direction of the Fifth Epochal Event in my lifetime, then Fuller might be accused of being overly optimistic, if there is anybody left to accuse him.

Global Warming | Union of Concerned Scientists

Below is a diagram of the photosynthetic process in grass. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)
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Global warming is happening now

The human ability to think abstractly was exploited by social managers from civilization’s earliest days. Fixating people on irrational symbols, and then manipulating those symbols for elite benefit, is arguably a universal trait of civilized peoples. Even today, a great deal of politics is the ; as with the earliest religion, the neocortex is bypassed in favor of , and people are easy prey to the cynical manipulation of emotionally charged symbols. The effects of can last for the victim’s lifetime. When people mistake symbols for reality, they are easily manipulated. Large-scale ideological indoctrination probably began in Sumer, as the priesthood concocted and promoted various beliefs. Symbology replaced reality, including the acceptance of the secular elite as deific, getting slaves to accept their status, and getting commoners to give food to the priesthood to fulfill some divinely ordained obligation. Religion passed from experience to belief with the rise of civilization. I am not suggesting that pre-civilized religions were necessarily enlightened. They had shamanic intermediaries too, but with the rise of civilization, the priest class had to work hard to justify the obviously unfair social organization that accompanied stratified populations. Direct religious experience was disparaged and suppressed while the priesthood’s religious indoctrination was promoted.

Global warming stopped 16 years ago, reveals Met …

Just as with or the , there are plenty of scientists and scholars who argue that human-agency is not responsible for the decline and collapse of civilizations, question , assert that climate change did it, or invasion did it, and so on. The battle of competing hypotheses is part of the process of science, but all scientists whose hypotheses deflect responsibility from humanity (their ) have an inherent conflict of interest, and their work should be examined with that in mind. In the historical era, particularly when Europe conquered the world, the rapid deforestation and desertification of newly conquered lands was evident. Within a century of the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, a valley of verdant forests and fertile farmland was . That valley is known as the today, because the desert-dwelling mesquite is the dominant tree in that semi-desert. British invaders of Australia did the same thing to within 50 years, via deforestation and sheep grazing. Streams quickly dried up, but flooded when it rained, as the “sponge” of the forest ecosystem was removed, so flood drought accompanied deforestation. Atlantic islands were by invading Spaniards and Portuguese.

Children were no longer net assets to parents , so women gave birth to fewer children;
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Climate change, food security and mycotoxins: Do we …

The Golden Age of before it was displaced by , and diapsids, particularly , began displacing therapsids early in the Triassic. A descendant, , burrowed and was possibly a direct ancestor of mammals. If it was not our direct ancestor, it was a to it. Proto-mammals were displaced and largely driven underground during the Triassic, and many of them About 225 mya, which was about halfway through the Triassic, , although there is plenty of fierce controversy over exactly which animal could be called a mammal. But reptiles starred in the Mesozoic’s tale, dinosaurs in particular. Mammals were small, marginal creatures, and until the late Mesozoic, they only emerged from their burrows at night to feed.

The planet's temperature is rising

I noticed several crippling weaknesses in all alternative energy efforts that I was involved with or witnessed. Most importantly, when my partner mounted his efforts, people participated primarily to serve their self-interest. While the pursuit of mutual self-interest is the very definition of politics, self-interested people were easily defeated by organized suppression, although the efforts usually self-destructed before suppression efforts became intense. Another deficiency in all mass free energy efforts was that most participants were scientifically illiterate and did not see much beyond the possibility of reducing their energy bills or becoming rich and famous. Once the effort was destroyed (and they are, if they have any promise), the participants left the alternative energy field. Also, many lives were wrecked as each effort was defeated, so almost nobody was able or willing to try again. Every time that my partner rebuilt his efforts, it was primarily with new people; few individuals lasted for more than one attempt.

Climate change impacts on rivers - UK Rivers Network

Some kinds of organisms found great success with their strategies and they marginalized other kinds and even drove them to extinction, to only die off themselves in a mass extinction event, and the previously marginalized life forms flourished in the post-catastrophic biome. The rise of might have never happened without the dinosaurs’ demise. Mass extinction events account for less than five percent of all species extinctions during the , but they had a profound impact on complex life’s history; the rise of mammals is only one of many radical changes. Not only would a class of animals such as mammals thrive when their dinosaur overlords were gone, but the of mammal evolution was also influenced. It took millions of years, even tens of millions of years, for ecosystems to approach their former level of abundance and diversity after a mass extinction event, and the new biomes could appear radically different from the pre-extinction biome. The geologic periods in the eon of complex life usually have mass extinctions marking their boundaries.