The American Civil War (1860-1865)

- Burnside's North Carolina Expedition. U.S.N Flag Officer , commander of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, and U.S. Brig. Gen. led a major amphibious expedition out of Fort Monroe on January 2 that included 15,000 men on eighty transports with twenty-six warships and gunboats. Their objective was to secure eastern North Carolina by taking Roanoke Island, New Bern, and Beaufort Harbor/Fort Macon. Roanoke Island linked the Outer Banks to the North Carolina mainland and enabled the Confederates to control access to both Pamlico Sound and Albemarle Sound. The defenses of Roanoke Island were concentrated on its west side. Four forts—Huger, Forrest, Blanchard, and Bartow—guarded the narrow Croatan Sound where sunken ships and pilings slowed attacking ships. A large earthwork on Suple's Hill controlled the only north-south road. The Federals set out to capture the island with nineteen warships, forty-eight transports, and 13,000 troops, leaving the rest of the forces at Hatteras Inlet. The fleet bombarded Fort Bartow on February 7, staying out of range of the other two forts, and skirmished with the seven vessels of CSN Flag Officer 's "mosquito fleet." Burnside landed 4,000 men that afternoon at Ashby's Harbor, three miles south of Fort Bartow and by midnight had 10,000 men ashore. The Confederates guarding the shore retired to the Suple's Hill earthwork without opposing the Federals. In Burnside's attack the next morning U.S. Brig. Gen. 's brigade assaulted the works but were pinned down under heavy fire. U.S. Brig. Gen. 's brigade slogged through a swamp on the Confederate right and charged the fort. The Confederates abandoned the redoubt, retreated north up the causeway, and CS Colonel Henry M. Shaw and 2,500 troops surrendered. Only one week after they had begun their expedition, Goldsborough and Burnside had successfully invaded North Carolina, captured Roanoke Island and two towns on the coast, sealed one of the state's primary canals, and destroyed the "mosquito fleet."

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Boughton while serving in the army during the Civil War.

- Confederates capture the . A Confederate band makes a daring capture of a commercial vessel on Chesapeake Bay. The plan was the brainchild of , a veteran of the War of 1812. Hollins joined the navy at age 15, and had a long and distinguished career. A Maryland native, he was commander of a U.S. warship in the Mediterranean when hostilities erupted in 1861, and returned to New York and resigned his commission. After a brief stop in his hometown, Baltimore, Hollins offered his services to the Confederacy and received a commission on June 21, 1861. Soon after, Hollins met up with , a Marylander, former West Point attendee, and adventurer who had fought with pirates in China and revolutionaries in Italy. They hatched a plan to capture the and use it to marshal other Yankee ships into Confederate service. Zarvona went to Baltimore and recruited a band of pirates, who boarded the as paying passengers on June 28. Using the name Madame La Force, Zarvona disguised himself as a flirtatious French woman. Hollins then boarded the at its first stop. The conspirators later retreated to the French woman's cabin, where they armed themselves and then burst out to capture the surprised crew. Hollins took control of the vessel and stopped on the Virginia bank of the Chesapeake to pick up a crew of Confederate soldiers. They planned to capture a Union gunboat, the , but it was called away. Instead, the and its pirate crew came upon a ship loaded with Brazilian coffee. Two more ships, carrying loads of ice and coal, soon fell to the . These daring exploits earned Hollins a quick promotion from captain to commodore. At the end of July, Hollins was sent to take control of a fleet at New Orleans, Louisiana.

Brown's service as an army chaplain during the Civil War.

Kelly articulately discusses battles and skirmishes, camp life, disease, horrors of war, picket duty, troop movements and the rigors of marching, and military strategy.

Again, as is typical of civil wars, the initial phase of the war was something of a mess.

Several tropes therefore became standard in older Civil War movies:

- North Carolina Secedes from the Union. In North Carolina two factions arose: unionists and secessionists. Unionist sentiment was very strong, as the support for indicated. Even many slave owners felt that Lincoln's election alone was not sufficient cause for secession. The secessionist movement included the governor of the state, John W. Ellis. Unionists counted among their numbers prominent figures such as Congressman . In February 1861 the state's citizens defeated a referendum on whether to call a convention to discuss the issue. The debate continued until April 15, 1861, when, following the April 12 firing on Fort Sumter, Gov. John W. Ellis received a telegram from , Lincoln's secretary of war. The telegram, which was sent to all states still in the Union, asked for two regiments of troops for immediate military service. The south viewed this as an act of war, and most southerners, even those who opposed secession, felt they were now forced to choose sides. Jonathan Worth, state senator, writes on May 13: "I have been the most persevering and determined public man in my State to preserve the Union, the last to abandon the hope that the good sense of the Nation would prevent a collision between the extremes, each of which I viewed with equal abhorrence. I am left no other alternative but to fight for or against my section. I can not hesitate. Lincoln has made us a unit to resist until we repel our invaders or die. He writes again on May 15: "I think the South is committing suicide, but my lot is cast with the South and being unable to manage the ship, I intend to face the breakers manfully and go down with my companions."

one of 25 awarded to black soldiers during the war.

Many men rushed to enlist early on fearing they wouldn’t get a chance to fight, and correspondence from early on in the war indicates that many of the soldiers did not take it seriously.

Black involvement in the Civil War, ..

In later years many fictional treatments acted as if such phenomena had not existed, in all probability partly because of the image of the Civil War as a "War between the States" where you did not want to spotlight the disagreements and (sometimes armed) conflicts within states, partly because when portraying the of Southern officers in the US armed forces at the beginning of the war one did not want to show that continuing to serve for the Union was a possible and honorable option.