Plato | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Since the study of history in the West is commonly held to begin with Herodotus of ancient Athens, it is not surprising that we should examine the historical views of leadership through the eyes of two titans of Greek thought: Plato and Aristotle....

24/02/2018 · Plato (c

Free Plato Symposium Essays and Papers - 123HelpMe

Free Plato Symposium papers, essays, and research papers.

VIII, 2-5)?Democracy arises from people who are equal in some ways thinkingthey are unqualifiedly equal. Oligarchy arises from those who are unequalin some ways thinking they are then completely unequal.Faction arises from inequality - when unequals fail to getproportionately equal things. Democracy is least likely to result in faction; but oligarchiesare likely to experience faction because they disagree among themselves and withall other people. Democracy is ruling and being ruled - not based onmerit, but based on numerical equality - whatever the majority decides is"right" - and since there are more poor than any others, their opinionis the majority opinion. Oligarchs determine that what is right or just iswhat those with property decide. For Aristotle, both of these are wrong. A constitution based on the middle classes is closer to a democracy than to anoligarchy, and is more secure. ---A look at Aristotle's notion of types of states:

Plato's Cinema | The thoughts of a Philosophy graduate.

In his compact essay, not only does he display an in-depth understanding of complex perspectives on justice put forth by the protagonist Socrates, he deftly explains how Plato has artfully made rude objections by a seemingly minor character early in the dialogue function as a structuring device for nearly all the important ideas examined thereafter....

Apr 12, 2010 · 1. Compare and contrast the views of Thrasymachus, Glaucon, Socrates/Plato (in the Republic) with those of Aristotle concerning what is …
Aims and Methods of Moral Philosophy

Kant's Moral Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Hamedi, Afifeh. “The Concept of Justice In Greek Philosophy (Plato and Aristotle).” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Jan. 2014, doi:10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n27p1163.

Commentary on the Apology of Socrates - Friesian School

Commentary on Plato's Apology of Socrates

Conceptions of Equality/Plato, Aristotle and additions(References from a variety of sources, among them JoelFeinberg's , Taylor's , Ross's ,Strauss and Cropsey's , the , Hobbes's , , ,and )How is equality to be understood?Should everyone have equal opportunity, or should all outcomesbe equal?Should rights be held equally, or only by desert? The idea of human rights (distinctively) includes the notionthat all persons derive their status as human beings. This entails thatrights belong to all human beings, whether they are foolish or wise, rich orpoor, black or white. The notion is further understood that human rightsare independent of merit (though merit may confer on a person more rights).If we claim that all people are equal, what does this mean, fromwhat source does equality arise?Problems with these three possibilities:Some people try the route to equality in claiming that there is"common humanity" that makes us all equal and valuable. But that still leaves open the question what makes humanity valuable.Pain and suffering are not constant - some are moresusceptible to pain than others, for example. And what of cases in whichwe can treat people in ways that are obviously unjust, though they feel no pain(so far as we know)? An example is executing or murdering someone whenthat person does not expect it, and doing so in a way in which the personsuffers not at all.Rationality is suspect as a basis of equality since not allhuman beings are equally rational, and not all human beings are rational atall. -A brief excursion into the Hobbesiannotion of human value or worthWhich notion of human equality is (most) defensible? Perhaps it is the notion of a kind of Kantian ultimacy of human dignity,autonomy and value that we recognize in a non-rational way - perhaps ourequality is purely subjective - perhaps human worth is something that isintuitive or groundless because it is a basic truth? Plato and Aristotle on Human and Political Equality Democracy comes into being asdegenerating oligarchy. Oligarchs are rich, fat, and lazy. "Democracy comes about when the poor are victorious, killing some of theiropponents and expelling others, and giving the rest an equal share in rulingunder the constitution, and for the most part assigning people to positions ofrule by lot." (Rep., 557a-b) Democracy is characterized by great freedomin every sense, where a person can do anything he wishes or wills to do. It is the form of government in which one finds people of all varieties. "And what about the city'stolerance? Isn't it so completely lacking in small-mindedness that it utterlydespises the things we took so seriously when we were founding our city,namely, that unless someone had transcendent natural gifts, he'd never becomegood unless he played the right games and followed a fine way of life from earlychildhood? Isn't it magnificent the way it tramples all this underfoot, bygiving no thought to what someone was doing before he entered public life and byhonoring him if only he tells them that he wishes the majority well? -Background of thePlatonic perfect state:The democratic man always surrenders to his desires, allowingthose desires to rule over him., from Justice is equality, but only for equals; andjustice is inequality, but only for those who are unequal.Why do people constitute themselves in communities? It is natural to do so. NoteAristotle's notion that the state is a natural institution, and arisesfrom natural affiliations/associations among people - from the most basic, manand woman, for purposes of procreation; then to the family, which provides fordaily needs; then to the village, which is composed of families and cantranscend daily needs; then to the state, which is most perfect, and mostvaried. We are, for Aristotle, naturally social or politicalanimals. Further, the state, he claims, is prior to the individual,not in the order of nature, but in the order of becoming. There is, then,a natural hierarchy - a naturalness to domination and submission, since the wifenaturally submits to her husband, the child to the parent, the slave or servantto the master, etc.For what purposes might people create communities?The last three must be present for there to be a city-state, butthey alone are not enough. The state exists "only when households andfamilies live well as a community whose end is a complete and self-sufficientlife." (POL, 1280b,30-35) All of these things are the result offriendship. -What is the Aristoteliannotion of friendship (NIC ETH, Bk.

Did "Cosmos" Pick the Wrong Hero? - Out There

THIS IS MY PROPOSAL TO THE PROFESSOR: I propose that my final paper focuses on justice. I will review how Plato and Aristotle generally view justice. This is an important topic because justice is as essential in today’s society as it was years ago. I will stick to reviewing and contrasting specifically justice with these two philosophers. They both have similarities, but they also have differences in their thoughts about justice. Plato’s take on justice merely is what is good is good and what is bad is bad and that everyone should have their own justice. Aristotle on the other hand reasons why something is good or bad and examines what is considered right. How do we determine what is just? I will concentrate on Plato’s and Aristotle’s views, determine what position I agree with and provide my own viewpoint. By examining our thoughts and feelings and looking at ethical theories, we might understand why we see things the way that we do or Plato and Aristotle may help us look at things differently. Who knows, we may change how we examine justice altogether. Justice has been described in a lot of different views through this course. Reviewing different philosophers helps us to explore our own values and beliefs and to examine what is important to us, how we want to live our lives and what we want to teach our offspring’s.