Durkheim, Emile | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Christian authors have traditionally used the Bible as a source ofhistorical information. Biblical exegesis of the creation narratives,especially Genesis 1 and 2 (and some other scattered passages, such asin the Book of Job), remains fraught with difficulties. Are thesetexts to be interpreted in a historical, metaphorical, or poeticfashion, and what are we to make of the fact that the order ofcreation differs between these accounts (Harris 2013)? The Anglicanarchbishop James Ussher (1581–1656) used the Bible to date thebeginning of creation at 4004 BCE. Although such literalistinterpretations of the Biblical creation narratives were not uncommon,and are still used by Young Earth creationists today, theologiansbefore Ussher already offered alternative, non-literalistreadings of the biblical materials (e.g., Augustine 416 ). Fromthe seventeenth century onward, the Christian doctrine of creationcame under pressure from geology, with findings suggesting that theEarth was significantly older than 4004 BCE. From the eighteenthcentury on, natural philosophers, such as de Maillet, Lamarck,Chambers, and Darwin, proposed transmutationist (what would now becalled evolutionary) theories, which seem incompatible with scripturalinterpretations of the special creation of species. Following thepublication of Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859), therehas been an ongoing discussion on how to reinterpret the doctrine ofcreation in the light of evolutionary theory (e.g., Bowler 2009).
Émile Durkheim - Wikipedia
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Emile Durkheim - New World Encyclopedia
Whereas Marx saw social conflict as inherent in the manner in which labor was organized in capitalist societies, Durkheim believed that diminished solidarity was a pathological condition. He believed that modern societies would need to develop new means of reinforcing social norms and a shared sense of affiliation. Drawing on Alexis de Tocqueville's analysis of American society2, Durkheim suggested that social cohesion could result from action of occupations groups.
Extracts from Emile Durkheim - Andrew Roberts
Whereas the functionalist and conflict perspectives are macro approaches,symbolic interactionismis a micro approach that focuses on the interaction of individuals and on how they interpret theirinteraction. Its roots lie in the work in the early 1900s of American sociologists, socialpsychologists, and philosophers who were interested in human consciousness and action. HerbertBlumer (1969),a sociologist at the University of Chicago, built on their writings to develop symbolicinteractionism, a term he coined. This view remains popular today, in part because manysociologists object to what they perceive as the overly deterministic view of human thought andaction and passive view of the individual inherent in the sociological perspective derived fromDurkheim.
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