Equality (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
What Does Equality of Opportunity Mean? - The Daily …
These factors play an essential, albeit varied, role in thefollowing alternative egalitarian theories of distributive justice. Thefollowing theories offer different accounts of what should be equalizedin the economic sphere. Most can be understood as applications of thepresumption of equality (whether they explicitly acknowledge it ornot); only a few (like strict equality, libertarianism, andsufficiency) are alternatives to the presumption.
Human Knowledge: Foundations and Limits
Hannah Pitkin takes a very different approach. She claims that thelogic of Locke's argument makes consent far less important in practicethan it might appear. Tacit consent is indeed a watering down of theconcept of consent, but Locke can do this because the basic content ofwhat governments are to be like is set by natural law and not byconsent. If consent were truly foundational in Locke's scheme, wewould discover the legitimate powers of any given government byfinding out what contract the original founders signed. Pitkin,however, thinks that for Locke the form and powers of government aredetermined by natural law. What really matters, therefore, is notprevious acts of consent but the quality of the present government,whether it corresponds to what natural law requires. Locke does notthink, for example, that walking the streets or inheriting property ina tyrannical regime means we have consented to that regime. It is thusthe quality of the government, not acts of actual consent, thatdetermine whether a government is legitimate. Simmons objects to thisinterpretation, saying that it fails to account for the many placeswhere Locke does indeed say a person acquires political obligationsonly by his own consent.