What is portrayed on television is true of society in general.

These kind of statements indicate the importance of television, as a learning medium,to provide a balanced , positive, equal opportunities world. Although recently televisionportrayals have been seen to change, it still refuses to adapt fully to the changing worldand continues to reflect traditional, stereotyped roles for males and females in manyareas, such as soap operas and, especially, advertisements. As children have a relativelyshort attention span, advertisements tend to grab their attention and appeal to them moreso than lengthy programmes. In this way, they can be seen to have an even strongerinfluence on them. A lot of research was undertaken into the area of televisioncommercials during the 1960's and 1970's, and studies such as the one conducted byHennesse and Nicholson (1972) have shown that "many observers felt that the images ofwomen in the ads were demeaning and one sided...women were shown almost exclusively ashousewives and as 'dependent on men'." (Condry, 1989, page 190). Another extensivestudy by Scheibe (1983) who examined over two thousand commercials, illustrated that shefound the world of television to depict men advertising cars and financial services whilewomen were restricted to beauty products and cleaning equipment. From her observations shealso found that women were often portrayed as "powerless, helpless or seekingapproval or reward" (Condry, 1989, page 192) . This representation of women doingmundane domestic tasks and demonstrating household products is common in many adverts. Forexample in the 'Daz Doorstep Challenge' commercials we never see a man opening the doorholding a baby and telling us 'how white his whites' are. Van Evra states that

TV Shows That Defy Gender Stereotypes - Common Sense Media

Functionalism Gender roles in television are a part of gender roles in society as a whole.

Gender stereotypes in mass media. Case study: Analysis …

Therefore, the available evidence on the influence of television on sex-role behaviouris inconclusive. Much of it seems to point to the fact that it has the potential toreflect a certain image of the sexes, which does seem to have an effect, if only shortterm, on the attitudes of children. However, what needs to be taken into consideration isthe amount of influence television has weighed against other factors available to thechild in the environment. Durkin (1985) feels that the studies into the effect oftelevision on gender roles are over estimated when considering the impact of influencessuch as the school, books, siblings and peers. He also emphasises the point that childrencannot be seen as merely 'passive vessels', and that

Gender Stereotypes and Body Image - Lesson | …

This is, however, what the social learning school of thought believe. These theoristsbelieve that all aspects of behaviour are acquired as a result of observation andreinforcement, with imitation and modelling playing an important role. Bandura (1966)concluded that, from a series of experiments that children were more likely to imitatesame-sex models, and that the imitation was intensified if reward was given. This theoryruns along the lines of a child observing a character of the same sex as them ontelevision acting in a particular way, (i.e., Girls caring for their dollsand toy ponies, boys acting out a super hero adventure":Fleming, 1996, page59) and imitates it which is then met with approval from others in the environment, whichencourages the child to do it again. However, evidence relating to this theory is rathercontradictory. Wolf (1973) did find evidence to support Bandura when he found thatchildren were more likely to imitate the same sex model, even when the model's behaviourwas sex inappropriate. This indicates gender to be an identifying factor rather thanbehaviour. Barkley et al. (1972) found the reverse to be true. From their study theyconcluded that children imitate behaviour appropriate to their own sex regardless of thesex of the model - relying on the fact that children have already learned sex-appropriatebehaviour. Grusac and Brinker (1972) found that children attend equally to all models, butimitate the same-sex models because they are reinforced for doing so. Gross, however,states that this is unlikely because in real life "there is little evidence thatchildren are actually rewarded for imitating models of the same sex." (1993, page689).

Thompson, Teresa L. and Zebrinos, Eugenia. (1997). Television Cartoons: Do Children
Major Theories Gender Roles in Television Today There are more and less progressive television shows in terms of gender roles.

Gender and Emotion Stereotypes in Children’s Television

Extensive studies of television have indicated that it is males who dominate thetelevision medium, outnumbering women, on average, by 3:1. In this sense, television isreflecting a very 'male world', and as Hodge and Tripp state, it reflects the 'importanceof maleness'. This has worrying implications for how women perceive the world to be. Thefact that a majority of voice-overs on television are male, that there are more male newsreaders on television and that many of the major film directors are men indicates that itis the male who has the authority and the control of the world of television. It alsomeans that men have the opportunity to portray a world which suits them, which has beenlabelled as 'The Male Gaze'. This term relates to the fact that what is shown ontelevision is often seen through the eyes of the men who are in control, often resultingin the portrayal of a dominant man and a submissive woman. This is commonly seen in moviesand in advertisements, for example in an independent study of the film , Jodie Foster plays a powerful F.B.I. Agent, but she is still frequently putinto positions where she is made to feel inferior to men. This is often seen as a physicalrepresentation, such as in the scene where she meets Hannibal Lecter for the first time,she is told to sit down while he stands and 'dominates' over her. What is significant hereis the implicit messages this type of portrayal is sending out to young and impressionableviewers - that men are superior and authoritative while women are inferior and submissive.

Gender and Television - Museum of Broadcast …

Former Federal Communications Commissioner Nicholas Johnson once said "Alltelevision is educational; the only question is: what is it teaching?" (Thompson1995: 415). Children start watching television from a very early age, about 18 months totwo years (Thompson, 1979: 415 )1. Since very young children often have difficulty tellingfantasy from reality, they are particularly susceptible to the portrayals of gender typeson television, especially cartoons, which make up the majority of children's televisionviewing between the ages of two and eleven2. Witt found that in addition to the models ofbehavior provided by parents and peer groups, "a further reinforcement of acceptableand appropriate behavior is shown to children through the media, in particular,television"(Witt 1997: 254). Therefore, it can be assumed that children might use theportrayals of males and females in cartoon format as a model for performance of their owngenders, in order to assimilate into the norms of their culture. If children do in fact dothis, as many studies have shown, then it is important to study the content of thoseprograms children seem to watch most frequently, namely cartoons. Thompson and Zebrinos(1995) coded and analyzed 175 episodes of 41 different cartoons, showing largediscrepancies between prominence and portrayal of male and female characters. They notedthat, compared to female characters, males were given much more prominence, appeared morefrequently, and talked significantly more.

Gender Stereotypes in Television | My Jewish Learning

"'Reality Talk' or 'Telling Tales'?: The Social Construction of Sexual and Gender Deviance on a Television Talk Show." (Newbury Park, California), April 1994