The American Empire - Home Page of Wade Frazier

At the time, a successful voyage to India was more useful news to the European powers than what . In 1500, 13 ships, with Dias captaining one of them, set sail toward India again. The fleet visited Brazil along the way, taking a circuitous route around Africa, and seven ships were lost, including Dias’s. The six-month journey returned to Calicut on the western coast of India, and once again the reception was less than welcoming. The Portuguese retaliated by bombarding the city with cannons and burning boats. A series of explicitly military voyages ensued, and the Portuguese violently established a trade route to India and conquered the Muslim port of Goa in 1510. In 1511, Portugal conquered Malacca, in today’s Malaysia, which was the spice trade’s heart. While the Portuguese found the Arabs and other Muslims relatively easy to defeat militarily, and seizing their trading ports was how Portugal established itself, the Chinese Empire was another matter. The in the early 1400s were tremendous, with more than 20,000 men on each excursion. The few Portuguese boats that arrived failed to overawe the Chinese, who were far more civilized than the European interlopers. The Portuguese were reduced to smuggling as they continued to try gaining trading rights with China, and they began trading with Japan in 1543. In 1557, Portugal finally secured the rights to an easily watched and non-defendable tip of a peninsula. Their toehold became Macau. Pepper was by far the greatest import from Portugal’s trade route to Asia, which amounted to about 6,000 tons annually by 1520 and accounted for about 40% of Crown revenues.

JSTOR: Viewing Subject: Political Science

We need to rethink the relationship between mental health and political violence
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Patriarchal Nationalism: The Only Societal System That …

Occasionally the most abusive Spaniards would find themselves being imprisoned for crimes against the natives, but that treatment was reserved for either the most evil of the lot or those with political enemies. The crown-sponsored and investigated the conduct of New World officials such as Cortés. The tribunalsrecorded many allegations and evidence of misdeeds, which historians have used ever since. While such investigations may seem to reflect the Spaniards' “just” nature, and indeed “justice” seemed to be served at times, the were mainly used to trim the power of those posing the greatest threats to Crown authority.

There absolutely is a “biological nature” for men and women

Study of the early Spanish experience in the New World identifies several dynamics that have been central to the West’s experience ever since: greed, violence, sexism, nationalism, and proselytizing. Not that any of them were necessarily new phenomena, but they were all indulged on a level that had largely not been seen before. On a vast scale, women were raped, men were worked to death, and children were used as . Spanish nationalism was a new phenomenon, and Christian proselytizing hit the mother lode, just as the Church began losing its power. Christian ideology eventually gave way to secular religions such as , , and .

Terrorism is a tactic, not a political ideology of its own. Addressing any of one of those three factors (anger, alienation, or beliefs) makes someone more resilient to white nationalism. Even a small sense of community goes a long way in preventing violence, because people won’t reconsider their beliefs if they don’t feel connected to (or …
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Caribbean Islands Table of Contents

The filth, violence, starvation, disease, and overall misery of Europe made life a pretty cheap commodity, which is made evident by some telling statistics. During the 1600s, the life expectancy of a male in Europe’s ruling families was 28 years. As previously noted, that first Portuguese voyage to India had about a 25% survival rate, and the risk was so high on that voyage that criminals were forced into being crewmembers. A 75% mortality rate was a bit high, but during the next two centuries, Portugal launched about 15,000 men per year (and a few women) on its trade route. The mortality rate for the two-year voyage to Asia and back was about 25%. A death rate of a third of the passengers and crew was typical. It is difficult to imagine anybody loading up ships today, to distant lands, with that projected survival rate. As late as 1762, ten ships of the Dutch East India Company lost more than 1,000 people, about 45% of those aboard, just sailing from the Netherlands to the Cape of Good Hope. was the biggest killer on the high seas, but was far from the only one. Living on a ship of the day challenged even the European tolerance for squalor. Not surprisingly, mutiny was a constant risk, and draconian methods were used to keep the crews in line. In an early English attempt at colonization, at , the colony simply disappeared. The next attempt, at , was only sustained by the continual influx of colonists. During the first generation of the English invasion, nearly a third of the invaders died in the first year. In 1624, of about 7,000 colonists who arrived in Jamestown since 1607, only 1,200 still survived.

Queen Sirikit | Political Prisoners in Thailand

In watching the American media's treatment of the East Timor situation, I did not see one news account disclose to the public the USA's emphatic support of the East Timorese genocide during the 1970s. That history was invisible in the media accounts. In the Seattle media, for the first time I saw a hint about the conflict in America over the USA's ties to the Indonesian military. The article was a whitewash of the USA's involvement. The article quoted one Senate dissident Senate, Tom Harkin of Iowa. Regarding American support for the Indonesian special forces, who were training and arming those "vigilantes," Harkin was quoted as saying, "I can't see any benefit to it…what good did it do us?" As with nearly every foreign policy decision the USA has ever made, the question is framed as, "What's in it for us?" Harkin, one of the few American politicians with some backbone, was candid enough to admit it. The question is never really framed as to how it is helping the people in those nations that we "helped," not behind closed doors. That is not the game and never has been. When the USA reinstalled Aristide in Haiti, they gutted his initial reforms and kept the Haitian people in the yoke.

Fifty Orwell Essays - Project Gutenberg Australia

In post-9/11 America, white people might begin developing comprehension of what North America's natives were facing back then. History has shown that cultures unravel when subjected to catastrophes that kill off large fractions of the population, such as what the in the 1340s. Although and gang bit the hand that fed them, nobody seriously thinks that waves of Islamic settlers will come across the oceans to invade and exterminate Americans; Native Americans faced just that, except from Christians. By the American Revolution, the natives of Eastern North America clearly saw the trends; many eastern tribes were already extinct, and an inexorable march westward by the white invaders destroyed everything in its path in the name of “progress.” Not only were the forests, creatures, and natives disappearing under the boots and axes of the white juggernaut, but also there was active, exterminatory hatred directed at the natives from the very beginning of the white invasion…and it was successful. Invasion, disease, and environmental devastation were inflicted in never-ending waves upon the natives. was perhaps the first North American native to begin to understand, but he was far from the last. The sages clearly saw the disintegration of Native American culture, and as they were violently dispersed from their homelands they influenced many inland tribes, and ’s Ottawa tribe among them. Pontiac’s efforts influenced Tecumseh’s, and the confederacy that the during the American Revolution.