The American Empire - Home Page of Wade Frazier
At the time, a successful voyage to India was more useful news to the European powers than what . In 1500, 13 ships, with Dias captaining one of them, set sail toward India again. The fleet visited Brazil along the way, taking a circuitous route around Africa, and seven ships were lost, including Dias’s. The six-month journey returned to Calicut on the western coast of India, and once again the reception was less than welcoming. The Portuguese retaliated by bombarding the city with cannons and burning boats. A series of explicitly military voyages ensued, and the Portuguese violently established a trade route to India and conquered the Muslim port of Goa in 1510. In 1511, Portugal conquered Malacca, in today’s Malaysia, which was the spice trade’s heart. While the Portuguese found the Arabs and other Muslims relatively easy to defeat militarily, and seizing their trading ports was how Portugal established itself, the Chinese Empire was another matter. The in the early 1400s were tremendous, with more than 20,000 men on each excursion. The few Portuguese boats that arrived failed to overawe the Chinese, who were far more civilized than the European interlopers. The Portuguese were reduced to smuggling as they continued to try gaining trading rights with China, and they began trading with Japan in 1543. In 1557, Portugal finally secured the rights to an easily watched and non-defendable tip of a peninsula. Their toehold became Macau. Pepper was by far the greatest import from Portugal’s trade route to Asia, which amounted to about 6,000 tons annually by 1520 and accounted for about 40% of Crown revenues.
JSTOR: Viewing Subject: Political Science
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Patriarchal Nationalism: The Only Societal System That …
Occasionally the most abusive Spaniards would find themselves being imprisoned for crimes against the natives, but that treatment was reserved for either the most evil of the lot or those with political enemies. The crown-sponsored and investigated the conduct of New World officials such as Cortés. The tribunalsrecorded many allegations and evidence of misdeeds, which historians have used ever since. While such investigations may seem to reflect the Spaniards' “just” nature, and indeed “justice” seemed to be served at times, the were mainly used to trim the power of those posing the greatest threats to Crown authority.
There absolutely is a “biological nature” for men and women
Study of the early Spanish experience in the New World identifies several dynamics that have been central to the West’s experience ever since: greed, violence, sexism, nationalism, and proselytizing. Not that any of them were necessarily new phenomena, but they were all indulged on a level that had largely not been seen before. On a vast scale, women were raped, men were worked to death, and children were used as . Spanish nationalism was a new phenomenon, and Christian proselytizing hit the mother lode, just as the Church began losing its power. Christian ideology eventually gave way to secular religions such as , , and .
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