Reviving God: a study of Matthew Arnold and Gerard …

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among the guests, an earnest face among the cheerful, a disbeliever among the faithful, a dark countenance amid the bright assembly; — a being who, in glaring contrast to the sun, the smiles, and the gaily-coloured dresses and sunshades, is keeping a tight hold upon a dark umbrella — for he has an uncontrollable mistrust of English weather!
And I may claim that I not only know the meteorological conditions of England, but also those of the whole of modern Europe.

Walter Arnold Kaufmann, Young Nietzsche and the …

Arnold and his student, Sylvester. In the process of desiring an object, Dr.

Schoenberg, Arnold - Der Wanderer (Nietzsche) Op. 6

Toynbee's work was subject to an effective critique by Pieter Geyl and an article written by Hugh Trevor-Roper, "Arnold Toynbee's Millenium" - descibing Toynbee's work as a "Philosophy of Mish-Mash" - dramatically undermined Toynbee's reputation.

Friedrich Nietzsche - Wikipedia

"What Nietzsche disparaged, then, under the name of morality was not all morality, for he had an enthusiastic master-morality of his own to impose. He was thinking only of the Christian virtues and especially of a certain Protestant and Kantian moralism with which perhaps he had been surfeited. This moralism conceived that duty was something absolute and not a method of securing whatever goods of all sorts are attainable by action. The latter is the common and the sound opinion, maintained, for instance, by Aristotle; but Nietzsche, who was not humble enough to learn very much by study, thought he was propounding a revolutionary doctrine when he put goods and evils beyond and above right and wrong...Nietzsche, then, far from transcending ethics, re-established it on its true foundations, which is not to say that the sketchy edifice which he planned to raise on these foundations was in a beautiful style of architecture or could stand at all.

nietzsche | The Genealogy of Style

Arnold wanting the object, regardless of its worth to Sylvester, aninstinctual drive is triggered in him that causes him to mimic Arnold's desire. That is the inherent nature of mimetic desire--it is a drive that is “provoked and defined by the pull of the acquisitive actions and intentions of the other" (Wallace 1994, 7). In helping to explain the nature of Girard's idea of desire, Schwager contrasts Hegelian desire with Girardian desire:

[Consider] Hegel's idea that desire desires the desire of the other. For Girard, however, desire is imitative and acquisitive: it does not desire the desire of the other as such but imitates the other's desire for an object. (Wallace 1994, 7)
Girard's theory has many similarities to social learning theory (SLT). Developed in the 1960's, SLT explored in its aggressiveness aspects by Bandura, "relies on role modeling, identification and human interactions" (Kaplan, Sadock, Grebb 1994, 169). Competing theories of learning emphasize various other methods that humans and animals have developed to adapt to hostile environments. Classical behaviorism, typified in its radical form by B.

Hunky Dory gave me a fabulous groundswell

For Nietzsche's great forerunner on the Continent, Wolfgang Goethe, who was also just as well aware how it would all end, was much too prudent a man to lay his innermost heart bare to his enemies, he — the grand old hypocrite of Weimar — gauged the power of the contrary current correctly, and wisely left the open combat against Christianity and democracy to his great colleague — to that man of tragic wit, to Heinrich Heine.
And there were others on the Continent — very few to be sure, and no politician or man of science or woman among them — others who saw the drift of modern ideas: all of them poets.

Nietzsche – Beyond Good and Evil (1886) | taste to waste

Skinner, emphasizes conditioning and training (Leahey, 275-285). Cognitivists, such as Levi-Strauss or Maslow emphasize internal, abstract thinking processes and information processing models (325-340). Psychoanalysts, like Freud, emphasize the internal competition between potentially destructive biological drives and social norms, together with psychological woundings caused by parental influences (80-105). Social learning theorists fall into a cognitive behaviorist camp, combining strengths of both fields into a theory that locates the actor in a community of other actors. SLT proposes that

Persons learn by observing others, intentionally or accidentally; that process is known as modeling or learning through imitation. The person's choice of a model is influenced by a variety of factors, such as age, sex, status, and similarity to oneself. If the chosen model reflects healthy norms and values, the person develops the capacity to adapt to normal everyday life and to threatening situations. It is possible to eliminate negative behavior patterns by having a person learn alternative techniques from other role models. (Kaplan, Sadock, Grebb 1994, 169)
Girard, in a similar line of thought, radicalizes this proposition, proposing that "all human behavior is learned and all learning is based on imitation" (Wallace 1994, 8). The primary surface distinction between SLT and Girardian learning theory is that SLT typically maintains that cognitive factors weigh into the learning process. So the learning response is partly dependent on classical behaviorist factors such as rewards and reinforcement that are important to increase and maintain the imitative behavior. Despite this caveat, the similarities between Girardian mimesis and SLT are striking. Girard, using primarily anthropological data and analyses of fictional narratives to support his theory, rarely points to the mass of data from social psychology that supports his mimetic theory. But such data is important and relevant, explored later in this paper. Thus far in the allegory, there are two actors, Dr.