Walter Arnold Kaufmann, Young Nietzsche and the …
Schoenberg, Arnold - Der Wanderer (Nietzsche) Op. 6
Toynbee's work was subject to an effective critique by Pieter Geyl and an article written by Hugh Trevor-Roper, "Arnold Toynbee's Millenium" - descibing Toynbee's work as a "Philosophy of Mish-Mash" - dramatically undermined Toynbee's reputation.
Friedrich Nietzsche - Wikipedia
"What Nietzsche disparaged, then, under the name of morality was not all morality, for he had an enthusiastic master-morality of his own to impose. He was thinking only of the Christian virtues and especially of a certain Protestant and Kantian moralism with which perhaps he had been surfeited. This moralism conceived that duty was something absolute and not a method of securing whatever goods of all sorts are attainable by action. The latter is the common and the sound opinion, maintained, for instance, by Aristotle; but Nietzsche, who was not humble enough to learn very much by study, thought he was propounding a revolutionary doctrine when he put goods and evils beyond and above right and wrong...Nietzsche, then, far from transcending ethics, re-established it on its true foundations, which is not to say that the sketchy edifice which he planned to raise on these foundations was in a beautiful style of architecture or could stand at all.