what is plato's ideal society? | Yahoo Answers
Term Paper on Plato And The Perfect Society - …
Still, Plato’s full psychological theory is much more complicated thanthe basic division of persons would suggest. First, there aredifferent kinds of appetitive attitudes (558d–559c, 571a–572b): someare necessary for human beings; some are unnecessary but regulable(“lawful”), and some are unnecessary and entirelyuncontrollable (“lawless”). So there are in fact fivekinds of pure psychological constitutions: aristocraticallyconstituted persons (those ruled by their rational attitudes),timocratically constituted persons (those ruled by their spiritedattitudes), oligarchically constituted persons (ruled by necessaryappetitive attitudes), democratically constituted persons (ruled byunnecessary appetitive attitudes), and tyrannically constitutedpersons (ruled by lawless appetitive attitudes). The first three of these constitutions are characteristically ordered toward simple aims (wisdom, honor, and money, respectively), but the last two are not so ordered, because there is no simple aim of the unnecessary appetites, be they lawful or lawless. In effect, the democratic and tyrannical souls treat desire-satisfaction itself and the pleasure associated with it as their end. The democrat treats all desires and pleasures as equally valuable and restricts herself to lawful desires, but the tyrant embraces disordered, lawless desires and has a special passion for the apparently most intense, bodily pleasures (cf. Scott 2000, Johnstone 2013, and Johnstone 2015).
Free Sample Science Term Paper on Plato And The Perfect Society
Furthermore, the dialogues have certain characteristics that aremost easily explained by supposing that Plato is using them as vehiclesfor inducing his readers to become convinced (or more convinced thanthey already are) of certain propositions—for example, thatthere are forms, that the soul is not corporeal, that knowledge can beacquired only by means of a study of the forms, and so on. Why, afterall, did Plato write so many works (for example: Phaedo,Symposium, Republic, Phaedrus,Theaetetus, Sophist, Statesman,Timaeus, Philebus, Laws) in which onecharacter dominates the conversation (often, but not always, Socrates)and convinces the other speakers (at times, after encountering initialresistance) that they should accept or reject certain conclusions, onthe basis of the arguments presented? The only plausible way ofanswering that question is to say that these dialogues were intended byPlato to be devices by which he might induce the audience for whichthey are intended to reflect on and accept the arguments andconclusions offered by his principal interlocutor. (It is noteworthythat in Laws, the principal speaker—an unnamed visitorfrom Athens—proposes that laws should be accompanied by“preludes” in which their philosophical basis is given asfull an explanation as possible. The educative value of written textsis thus explicitly acknowledged by Plato's dominant speaker. Ifpreludes can educate a whole citizenry that is prepared to learn fromthem, then surely Plato thinks that other sorts of written texts—for example, his own dialogues—can also serve aneducative function.)