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Consciousness | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Other variants of HO theory go beyond the standard HOT and HOPversions including some that analyze consciousness in terms ofdispositional rather than occurrent higher-order thoughts (Carruthers2000). Others appeal to implicit rather than explicit higher-orderunderstanding and weaken or remove the standard assumption that themeta-state must be distinct and separate from its lower-order object(Gennaro 1995, Van Gulick 2000, 2004) with such views overlapping withso called reflexive theories discussed in the section. Other variantsof HO theory continue to be offered, and debate between supporters andcritics of the basic approach remains active. (See the recent papersin Gennaro 2004.)
The role of conation (striving) in the distance education enterprise
Critics of the HO view have disputed that account, and some haveargued that the notion of unconscious qualia on which it relies isincoherent (Papineau 2002). Whether or not such proposed HO accounts ofqualia are successful, it is important to note that most HO advocatestake themselves to be offering a comprehensive theory of consciousness,or at least the core of such a general theory, rather than merely onelimited to some special meta-mental forms of it.