"Martin Heidegger" Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

So far, ocean pH has dropped from 8.2 to 8.1 since the industrial revolution, and is expected by fall another 0.3 to 0.4 pH units by the end of the century. A drop in pH of 0.1 might not seem like a lot, but the pH scale, like the Richter scale for measuring earthquakes, is logarithmic. For example, pH 4 is ten times more acidic than pH 5 and 100 times (10 times 10) more acidic than pH 6. If we continue to add carbon dioxide at current rates, seawater pH may drop another 120 percent by the end of this century, to 7.8 or 7.7, creating an ocean more acidic than any seen for the past 20 million years or more.

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Beginning Training The following is taken from a presentation given on March 9, 2002
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3 1844, and then there was a transition period to the Age of Aquarius, with its second half of the transition period beginning on 2/3/1937.) Reference: "And still they fly!", by Guido Moosbrugger, Published by Steelmark, 2004.

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Carbon dioxide is naturally in the air: plants need it to grow, and animals exhale it when they breathe. But, thanks to people burning fuels, there is now more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than anytime in the past 15 million years. Most of this CO2 collects in the atmosphere and, because it absorbs heat from the sun, creates a blanket around the planet, warming its temperature. But some 30 percent of this CO2 dissolves into seawater, where it doesn't remain as floating CO2 molecules. A series of chemical changes break down the CO2 molecules and recombine them with others.

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If the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere stabilizes, eventually buffering (or neutralizing) will occur and pH will return to normal. This is why there are periods in the past with much higher levels of carbon dioxide but no evidence of ocean acidification: the rate of carbon dioxide increase was slower, so the ocean had time to buffer and adapt. But this time, pH is dropping too quickly. Buffering will take thousands of years, which is way too long a period of time for the ocean organisms affected now and in the near future.

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Although the current rate of ocean acidification is higher than during past (natural) events, it’s still not happening all at once. So short-term studies of acidification’s effects might not uncover the potential for some populations or species to acclimate to or adapt to decreasing ocean pH. For example, the deepwater coral Lophelia pertusa shows a significant decline in its ability to maintain its calcium-carbonate skeleton during the first week of exposure to decreased pH. But after six months in acidified seawater, the coral had and returned to a normal growth rate.

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Geologists study the potential effects of acidification by digging into Earth’s past when ocean carbon dioxide and temperature were similar to conditions found today. One way is to study , soil and rock samples taken from the surface to deep in the Earth’s crust, with layers that go back 65 million years. The chemical composition of fossils in cores from the deep ocean show that it’s been 35 million years since the Earth last experienced today’s high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. But to predict the future—what the Earth might look like at the end of the century—geologists have to look back another 20 million years.