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Let us move on to the second way in which the coherentist approachmight be carried out. Recall what a subject's justification forbelieving p is all about: possessing a link between the beliefthat p and p's truth. Suppose the subject knows thatthe origin of her belief that p is reliable. So she knows thatbeliefs coming from this source tend to be true. Such knowledge wouldgive her an excellent link between the belief and its truth. So wemight say that the neighborhood beliefs which confer justification on(H) are the following:

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According to the second objection to DJ, deontological justificationdoes not tend to ‘epistemize’ true beliefs: it does not tendto make them non-accidentally true. This claim is typically supportedby describing cases involving either a benighted, culturally isolatedsociety or subjects who are cognitively deficient. Such cases involvebeliefs that are claimed to be epistemically defective even though itwould not seem that the subjects in these cases are under anyobligation to refrain from believing as they do. What makes the beliefsin question epistemically defective is that they are formed usingunreliable and intellectually faulty methods. The reason why thesubjects, from their own point of view, are not obliged to believeotherwise is that they are either cognitively deficient or live in abenighted and isolated community. DJ says that such beliefs arejustified. If they meet the remaining necessary conditions,DJ-theorists would have to count them as knowledge. According to theobjection, however, the beliefs in question, even if true, could notpossibly qualify as knowledge, due to the epistemically defective waythey were formed. Consequently, DJ must be rejected.[]

Sociocultural Approaches to Learning and Development:

To round off this discussion of curriculum we do need to pay further attention to the social context in which it is created. One criticism that has been made of the praxis model (especially as it is set out by Grundy) is that it does not place a strong enough emphasis upon context. This is a criticism that can also be laid at the door of the other approaches. In this respect the work of Catherine Cornbleth (1990) is of some use. She sees curriculum as a particular type of process. Curriculum for her is what actually happens in classrooms, that is, ‘an ongoing social process comprised of the interactions of students, teachers, knowledge and milieu’ (1990: 5). In contrast, Stenhouse defines curriculum as the attempt to describe what happens in classrooms rather than what actually occurs. Cornbleth further contends that curriculum as practice cannot be understood adequately or changed substantially without attention to its setting or context. Curriculum is contextually shaped. While I may quibble about the simple equation of curriculum with process, what Cornbleth does by focusing on the interaction is to bring out the significance of context.

That's the major thing you need to keep in mind

Knowles, M. S. (1980) The Modern Practice of Adult Education. From pedagogy to andragogy 2e, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Cambridge/Prentice Hall. 400 pages. Pretty much the standard US work on practical program design in the 1970s and 1980s. Based around Knowles’ assumptions concerning the way adults learn with some leanings to behaviouralism. Part one explores the emerging role and technology of adult education; Part two organizing and administering comprehensive programs of adult education; and Part three reflects on helping adults learn. Extensive appendices provide various exhibits and additional models. See also Knowles (1950) Informal Adult Education. A guide for administrators, leaders and teachers, New York: Association Press (272 pages) for an early but still useful review of program design and implementation within an NGO (Chicago YMCA).

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To create an effective learning environment for literacy acquisition,Vygotsky (1978) wrote that "teaching should be organizedin such a way that reading and writing are necessary for something....thatwriting should be meaningful....that writing be naturally....andthat the natural methods of teaching reading and writing involveappropriate operations on the child's environment" (pp. 117-118).These considerations have influenced recent sociocultural approachesto literacy instruction for children and adults in school, atworkplaces, and in after-school, home, and day-care settings (Clay& Cazden, 1990; John-Steiner, Panofsky, & Smith, 1994;McNamee, 1990; Scribner & Cole, 1981; Zebroski, 1994).

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These Bayesian approaches are explicitly "subjective" in the sense that they deal with the plausibility which a rational agent ought to attach to the propositions he/she considers, "given his/her current state of knowledge and experience." By contrast, at least some non-Bayesian approaches consider probabilities as "objective" attributes of things (or situations) which are really out there (availability of data).